AceBear Security Contest 2018: Urlparameter
This challenge was the first of the 4 proposed by AceBear at this contest.
We follow the given link (http://22.214.171.124:8080/) and it shows an empty page, looking at the source code is no better. So what we do is checking for a robots.txt file which could give us any idea of what is going on…
Fig 1 - A clue for using /?debug
It seems we can browse the GET parameter debug and it displays us part of (whole ?) index.php script.
Fig2 - Part of (whole ?) index.php script
From that code we understand that there is kind of hard filtering implementation that is being used. If you browse for functions in php, majority of those contain “_”, “read”, “open”, “dir”… Plus, there it’s case insensitive and only the most right parameters combination (key/value) will be processed !
Not all functions are enabled, we can’t use functions like “include”, “require”, “echo”, “print”, etc., if we do it warns us that way:
Fig 3 - Function not found !!
Finally we understand from tests that only the printf function can be used to display contents and it can’t be combined to get the result of functions such as pathinfo()…
We spent a lot of time trying to bypass the filters with unusuals functions, however we discovered that %hex encoding in a URL are being interpreted after the $_SERVER variable is setting his values…
So basically we just could use a hex encoding to use functions that are filtered like “system” to bypass the preg_match function ! The flaw was using the $_SERVER[“REQUEST_URI”] instead of using the $_GET parameters !
As you can see below, if we use /?system=ls ./ with a hex encoding of the system word, it bypass the preg_match and process the system function !
Fig 4 - preg_match bypassed !
By now we can go straight to the flag by using the same hex encoding to process /?system=cat flag-a-long-name-that-you-wont-know.php We now check the source code looking for any flag inside a php script and VOILA
Fig 5 - Flag inside the source code